8th Biennial ACSPRI Social Science Methodology Conference

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10:30
10:30
10min
Conference opening and welcome

A member of the ACSPRI executive committee will open the conference. Including an acknowledgement of country and acknowledging our sponsors.

Zoom Conference Room
10:40
10:40
80min
Qualitative Research for Social Impact
Professor David Silverman

Qualitative Research for Social Impact

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/7L1M_crZgyQGXGFCs9hH5X3bV6a4scpGFVO-IZk6RYyN4kDqWPaqAi5ilTwk8Zui.XEn76_SlXiN1GwzI?startTime=1669159938000
Sponsor's note:

Order David Silvermans Books at a 20% discount from Book Depository using code SILVERMAN2022

Zoom Conference Room
12:05
12:05
5min
A critical qualitative study of inclusive education in Saudi Arabia.
May Alrudayni

In 2016, the Saudi Arabia Ministry of Education released an inclusive education policy (IEP) and launched an inclusive approach in selected schools, with the goal of shifting the education system away from special education towards a more inclusive system. Students with disability are the intended beneficiaries, and their interests are central to Saudi Arabia’s educational transition to an inclusive education system. This study investigates Saudi Arabia’s paradigm shift from special education to inclusive education, particularly in relation to students with disability. This study aims to critically investigate Saudi Arabia’s inclusive education policy and the inclusive approach implemented in two girls' primary schools in light of historical, cultural, political and social factors—particularly within the international context. The research question addressed in this study centered on what has changed, in discourse and in practice, in the shift from special education to inclusive education in Saudi Arabia.

This research adopts a critical qualitative stance while leaning more towards post-structuralism. The two data collection methods used include relevant policy analysis and semi-structured interviews with stakeholder who are directly involved in the development of the inclusive education policy and the implementation of the inclusive approach in schools. A post-structural discourse analysis is utilised in this research to investigate issues of power, privilege and discourse. This study employed Critical Policy Analysis in Education (CPAE)(Young & Diem, 2017) to analyse policy documents and Foucauldian discourse analysis (Willig, 2013) to analyse data gained from interview. Inclusive Education Theory (Slee, 2011, 2018) and Critical Disability Theory (Goodley, 2011, 2017) are adopted in this research to help with conceptualisation, interpretation and analytic thinking.

Keywords: Inclusive education, special education, critical disability studies, post-structural analysis, Saudi Arabia.

Short videos
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12:15
12:15
5min
Public Displays of Attention: Exploring a Rare Form of Community Grievance Handling in the Global Mining Sector
Kathryn Kochan

The global mining sector operates in a context of historical, recurring, and unresolved community-level grievances. Evidence suggests this ‘grievance landscape’ is expanding, with more allegations and claims making their way into the public domain. While community-level grievances in mining have become more visible, little is known about how companies handle these within the organisation. Over the last few decades, specific high-profile incidents and issues have been handled by mining companies through inquiry processes with a deliberate public interface. This type of company-initiated, public-facing inquiry process – which I refer to as “company-commissioned public inquiries” (CPIs) – is extremely rare. The circumstances that push some companies to embark on a public-facing process are unknown. Also unknown are the circumstances preventing companies from using this approach in similar cases. My thesis presents one substantial research question and three sub questions:

  1. Under what circumstances do private mining companies commission public inquiries?

a. What are the pre-cursor conditions for commissioning these inquiries?

b. What organisational systems and processes enable the commissioning?

c. Do a) and b) deviate from the norm? If so, how?

This is a social science thesis in the nature of exploratory research, employing qualitative methods. The research questions are framed by a collection of sociological concepts such as ‘thresholds’ for going public and ‘deviance’ from normative processes. The research is designed to be executed across four phases: 1) Preparatory research; 2) Identification of cases; 3) Key informant interviews; and 4) Consolidation of findings. Here, I focus on Phase two: Identification of cases. Little is available through research on CPIs as mining companies rarely subject themselves to a public process of inquiry. While the body of knowledge on government inquiries is extensive as a ‘proxy’ literature, the pre-cursors to initiating a public inquiry are not well studied. An analytical set of CPIs in the mining sector was identified to learn as much as possible about the context in which this type of inquiry has occurred in the past. The process of collecting and identifying the set began with existing knowledge and resources within my research team. Next, I conducted an in-depth, exhaustive review of academic literature, global reporting databases, and official records. When a ‘lead’ was identified, such as an incident or grievance, it was cross-referenced with other source materials. Cases were then screened using a broad criteria and sorted using a narrow criteria. The selection process was systematic, with the criteria and case set tested and confirmed by other researchers. Over eighty cases were collected, screened and finally sorted into four groups: Core, secondary, outlying and periphery. Establishing the sub groups was not a linear process. Not only did it require adjusting and deliberating the criteria but testing sociological concepts. A method was established to analyse the core set through a comprehensive read of the inquiry final reports. Information related to pre-cursor conditions, grievances, initiation, and triggers was then coded using the NVivo software. Key themes and gaps identified in the core set are highlighted against the outer sets. This will inform the interviews in Phase three of my research. This thesis will provide new insights into how mining companies approach community-level grievances and why they address some issues in public and others in private.

*Co-winner of the short video competition

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12:25
12:25
5min
Engaging and Retaining the Aging Workforce: A Multi-level Approach to Predicting Age-based Stereotype Threat
Sophie Coulon

Older employees are stereotyped as resistant to change, less capable, and technophobic (Posthuma & Campion, 2009). Encountering negative stereotypes can make older employees susceptible to age-based stereotype threat, or the concern about being reduced to a negative stereotype (Steele & Aronson, 1995). Older employees’ experiences of stereotype threat were associated with poorer job attitudes and greater intentions to quit (Kulik et al., 2016; von Hippel et al., 2013; 2019). These negative workplace outcomes are particularly problematic in the context of the global labor shortage – a time where better engaging and retaining the aging workforce may help with labor supply and supporting the economy. Although the consequences of stereotype threat are well documented, we know little about what factors can trigger age-based stereotype threat in the workplace. Drawing on three major theories (stereotype threat, socioemotional selectivity, and social comparison theories), we developed and tested a range of potential workplace antecedents. Given that organizations are multi-level systems, researchers have called for greater practice of multi-level perspectives in organizational research (Kozlowski & Klein, 2000; Costa et al., 2013). Our research examines stereotype threat at a higher level of analysis than conducted historically, by collecting multi-source data from both the individual and organisational level.

We tested our predictions across two studies among members of an ageing advocacy group and 24 government councils, totalling 1086 older employees. At the individual level, both studies identified 10 key antecedents associated with greater feelings of stereotype threat for older employees (e.g., being overlooked for training opportunities, feeling excluded from the informal social aspects of the workplace). Consistent with previous work, stereotype threat was associated with poorer job attitudes and greater intentions to quit. To reduce concerns of common method variance and investigate how organisational level variables impact older employees’ feelings of stereotype threat, we also collected data from younger co-workers (40 years old and under; N = 214) and the HR representative from each council. The extent to which the younger co-workers endorsed stereotypes about older workers and the extent to which councils offered HR programs unique to older employees (e.g., phased retirement) were not associated with older employees’ stereotype threat. The low intra-class correlations (.04 and .05) indicate that the variance between councils is small, but there are large differences between older employees within the same council. These results combined suggest that stereotype threat appears to be an individual experience with a great level of subjectivity between older employees.

Across two studies, we explored 10 key antecedents to age-based stereotype threat for older employees. Identifying the specific workplace antecedents can help inform organisational interventions (e.g., psychoeducation) to better predict and prevent stereotype threat from occurring, thereby improving the engagement and retention of the ageing workforce. Adopting a multi-level approach, we addressed concerns of common method variance and gained insight into how organisational level factors relate to older employees’ stereotype threat. Our findings indicate that stereotype threat may be less impacted by organisational level factors, like younger co-workers’ attitudes or the age-friendly HR programs available, and more impacted by local factors. Future research should investigate this possibility through narrowing down on the culture/climate at the department or workgroup level and looking at individual differences to explain the subjectivity of stereotype threat experiences.

*Co-winner of the short video competition

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12:35
12:35
5min
Time for QCA in Regional Development
Lionel Pengilley

Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is recognized as a promising research tool for uncovering complex causal processes, but to date there has been no systemic analysis of its operationalization in regional development contexts. This literature review provides a survey of twenty-six research papers which used QCA spatially to investigate the development of regional innovation systems, governance and inter-regional flows of knowledge, trade and investment. Specific attention was paid to the methods used, data, number of observations, identifying and measuring conditions, modes of analysis and calibration into set membership. This review then looks in greater detail at the means by which different studies include the dynamics of change over time. After drawing together some general observations about the usefulness of QCA for regional development questions, the conclusion suggests areas for further development of QCA in regional development.

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13:00
13:00
15min
Altruistic incentives: why participants want more than dollars and cents
Jennifer Renda, Deborah Louwen

Reimbursement incentive strategies play an integral part in survey participant engagement. Given the potential for participant non-response increases over the course of a study, innovative strategies designed to maximise retention and engagement are required. Contemporary approaches can combine not only monetary reimbursements, but also leverage a participant’s sense of altruism.

In 2013, the Department of Health funded the development of Ten to Men: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health. Originally comprising a sample of around 16,000 men aged from 10 to 55, sample loss had been problematic in early waves with over 4,000 participants not responding to Wave 2, only 1.5 years after Wave 1 was conducted. Sample attrition concerns were intensified by a five-year gap between Waves 2 and 3 following a change in study management.

In 2019, preparations began for approaching the TTM sample for Wave 3 of the study. Providing study participants with the most effective incentive offer was a key goal for the Wave 3 approach. Early focus group testing with participants suggested there was an appetite for conscientious study considerations (e.g. responsibly sourced paper for materials). This highlighted the importance of considering more than just the amount and type of reimbursement, but also what broader value incentives may hold for participants.

This paper will focus on the Ten to Men approach to using altruistic incentives to engage longitudinal study participants. For both a pre-fieldwork panel maintenance activity and for our Wave 3 main data collections, we partnered with relevant charities and provided charitable donations as a participant incentive option. We will discuss the value of these partnerships, how this incentive approach was promoted to participants and how they responded. We will also highlight the key learnings and how they have impacted planning for future approaches.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/sFdBbpep0OoacPzm634BiKe4bVY9lbHVDFWPYTVAhPA0z5bW5jP-TMNaiTTN1hdG.b2WvY5pK2mJq3Prh?startTime=1669169085000

Panel recruitment and retention
Zoom Breakout Room 3
13:00
15min
Using poetic inquiry to give voice to women who had a traumatic birth through bearing witness
Dr Hazel Keedle, Pixie Willo

Background: Pregnancy, birth and nurturing a newborn is a transformative rite of passage that, although challenging, should result in women who acknowledge their strength and feel capable to mother their children. Unfortunately, research identifies a third of women find their experience of pregnancy and birth to be a traumatic experience and are vulnerable to ongoing psychological issues such as anxiety, depression, and PTSD.
Methods: In this presentation we will share how the collaborative process between a researcher and poet, using poetry inquiry, created a collection of found poems from open ended survey data. The found poems were created using the written responses from the Australian Birth Experience Study (BESt) survey which was live between March -December 2021 and had 8,804 completed responses. The poetic inquiry analysis was undertaken through reflexive poetry from the poet and through reflection by the researcher and the poems highlighted women's experiences of traumatic birth.
Findings: The poems powerfully display themes of lack of control and consent through illuminating the voices of the women who shared their traumatic birthing stories.
Discussion: The presentation will explore the process of poetry inquiry and the audience will have the opportunity to hear the poet read selected poems. This emotive experience will increase understanding and raise awareness in the audience and wider community on the ongoing impact of experiencing birth trauma.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/hkc5yM1BIR2y-mm1UPVeeHVyAlDgr-uJebIZ_CUn6oTidH3tS2Kkl0RwzrX4dQmv.jKTgQbhWB-n9tpLD?startTime=1669168931000

Arts in Research
Zoom Breakout Room 1
13:20
13:20
15min
Balancing Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Considerations for Probability Online Panels
Jack Barton

When running an online probability panel complications can arise when trying to conduct concurrent cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys. These complications occur when trying to balance the needs of the two differing designs. Longitudinal designs aim to maximise the number of panellists that are surveyed repeatedly. Whereas cross-sectional designs are aiming to take a snapshot of the population, so representativeness of the sample is paramount. The presentation offers a solution that allows for both of the needs to be met at the same time, motivated by the needs of the ANUpoll, which is fielded on Life in Australia™. The ANUpoll makes extensive use of the longitudinal nature of Life in Australia™, where most other surveys fielded on Life in Australia™ are cross-sectional in nature. Our approach uses a propensity model based on diverse panel variables, including but not limited to demographic and lifestyle variables. The model allows for matching between the cross-sectional and longitudinal sample members, which are then swapped to maximise the longitudinal sample members in the longitudinal sample, without introducing bias into the cross-sectional sample.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/sFdBbpep0OoacPzm634BiKe4bVY9lbHVDFWPYTVAhPA0z5bW5jP-TMNaiTTN1hdG.b2WvY5pK2mJq3Prh?startTime=1669170194000

Panel recruitment and retention
Zoom Breakout Room 3
13:20
15min
Using slider scales for fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA): a fuzzy-set-theoretic approach to measuring degrees of membership
David Hua

The Likert scale enjoys common usage in fsQCA as a standardised tool for operationalising conceptual models (e.g. TAM, UTAUT) and collecting quantitative data to be calibrated into fuzzy scores. However, the limited discrete options can restrict the nuance of responses which may lie in-between or beyond provided answers. Respondents may select options that do not accurately reflect the magnitude of their views and there is an increased risk of the ceiling effect causing limited data variation. Theoretical concerns exist with using direct algorithmic calibration (involving supply of qualitative anchors for defining values constituting full membership, full nonmembership, and cross-over point) on ordinal measured data from Likert scales as it is intended for interval and ratio data. The slider scale is proposed as a more robust instrument leveraging set-theoretic and fuzzy logic principles for use in fsQCA.

The slider scale is a continuous rating scale for measuring ratio data (spanning from 0 to 100 in increments of one) whereby respondents drag a digital marker along a horizontal quantitative scale to indicate their response. Qualitative descriptors are distributed across the slider scale in a predetermined order as anchors covering different ranges of raw values and signposting different levels of membership scores. These anchors comprise a rubric description that provides respondents with a clear criteria to self-assess their degree of membership in some variable of interest and reduces uncertainty around how the scale is interpreted. This is useful for variables measurable as single-item scales or efficiently aggregating multiple items measuring the same variable dimension into one single item. The broader response continuum enables respondents to express their answers with greater precision and granularity, facilitating nuanced differentiation between membership scores. Notably, scores and qualitative anchors are easily mappable to ordinal scales to accommodate larger-N studies.

Studies have shown the measurement quality of slider scales are comparable to the reliability and validity of Likert scales. Slider scales can be used without materially compromising data quality, are less susceptible to the ceiling effect, and are more likely to yield normally distributed values. Importantly, there is the risk of systematic measurement error caused by the starting position of the digital marker and higher non-response rates associated with greater effort required to answer questions. These can easily be addressed through careful survey design and piloting feedback.

The ratio level of measurement of the slider scale makes it suitable for direct calibration and avoids any theoretical issues with using ordinal data from Likert scales. Raw values within the scale range of 0 to 100, representing the progression from full nonmembership to full membership, naturally captures the monotonic property of fuzzy sets ranging from 0 to 1 when transformed by some logistic function. The resulting set membership scores and supplied anchors (whether using variable distribution or substantive criteria) will be more fine-grained from using numeric over categorical data. This reasoning further applies to manual and indirect calibration.

A concrete application of the slider scale is presented as part of a pilot study investigating the causal complexity underpinning clinician acceptability of an artificial intelligence-based diagnostic support tool in real-world medical practice. The findings demonstrate how it can operationalise conceptual models and facilitate set-theoretic, configurational analysis particularly for exploratory research where dimensionality is high and sample size is low.

Authors:
- Mr David Hua - dhua9758@uni.sydney.edu.au
- Dr Neysa Petrina - neysa.petrina@sydney.edu.au
- Dr Simon Poon - simon.poon@sydney.edu.au

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/bMvRMHyt1mxBmr3v9JEMtzw40XMlR7ie_q-pDBV0BwdJ1Nf47TlmI5mkRiBW5d4n.4ITWOzq9QFTcwMgN?startTime=1669170286000

Innovative methods for social research
Zoom Breakout Room 2
13:20
15min
stILL-Life: a research process using story and performance to investigate living with kidney disease and receiving haemodialysis.
Leigh Tesch

The experience of living with chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be confronting, challenging and complex. Undergoing centred-based haemodialysis for 4 to 5 hours, 3 times a week has a significant impact on people’s lives. This presentation reports on an arts and health research process that sought to understand this experience through the participant’s personal stories.

The research collected stories from 14 people with CKD, in a longitudinal qualitative study that used narrative, ethnodrama and arts-based research methods. Data was collected through observations, 47 interviews and / or creative activities, initially face-to-face and later by telephone due to COVID19 restrictions. The stories were analysed using a narrative analysis and an ethnodramatic process of creating a performance. This disseminated the findings and was also condensed into an 8 minute film.

The performed work, stILL-Life, involved readings by actors, as well as music, film and imagery that responded to the collective narrative of the participants. Sharing stories in this way, deepened understandings of the lived experience, and amplified the familiar universal stories as well as those specific to the dialysis experience. Storytelling can help us make sense of our experiences, particularly when significant change and loss disrupts our life path.

This research recognises the person with CKD as the driver of their unique journey. It demonstrated the valuable role that the arts can play in understanding the lived experience, and highlights how the arts can enrich and deepen research practice.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/hkc5yM1BIR2y-mm1UPVeeHVyAlDgr-uJebIZ_CUn6oTidH3tS2Kkl0RwzrX4dQmv.jKTgQbhWB-n9tpLD?startTime=1669170103000

Arts in Research
Zoom Breakout Room 1
13:40
13:40
15min
There’s methodology in our madness: creating efficiency and opportunity by taking four diverse sub-cohorts to field
Kipling Walker, Lenneke Broeze

Longitudinal researchers face multiple design challenges, often with limited resources. This presentation details a unique approach to addressing some of these challenges in Ten to Men: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health. By strategically reusing and modifying our fieldwork materials, methodology and incentive approaches, we used a single fieldwork period to collect data from our main sample, re-engage lost participants, pilot a new survey format, and test retention rates for recently recruited top-up pilot participants.

Ten to Men, which is funded by the Department of Health and Aged Care, began in 2013. The fieldwork activities outlined in this session occurred as part of Wave 4 of the study (August - November 2022). Novel activities included: a shortened survey version as a ‘mop up’ method for non-responding participants; using this shortened survey to re-engage participants who had not responded to previous waves; combining the survey with a novel dietary tool to pilot a modularised content approach; and testing retention rates for a pilot top-up sample recruited in early 2022.

This approach also presented challenges. With differing fieldwork start and end dates, survey lengths and incentive strategies for each group, we needed to carefully design public-facing materials including participant letters, brochures, and participant information on our website. We also carefully designed and validated each survey type to ensure it was appropriate to its target group.

In this presentation, we provide background on the Ten to Men study, and discuss in detail how we arrived at this simultaneous Wave 4 fieldwork approach. We explore the opportunities and challenges of taking four sub-studies to field and share our learnings from this experience.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/sFdBbpep0OoacPzm634BiKe4bVY9lbHVDFWPYTVAhPA0z5bW5jP-TMNaiTTN1hdG.b2WvY5pK2mJq3Prh?startTime=1669171227000

Panel recruitment and retention
Zoom Breakout Room 3
13:40
15min
Thinking Outside the Closet: Opening the Door to Queer Representation in Longitudinal Research
Anna Scovelle

Collecting high-quality data on queer minorities is vital to understand and address inequalities. Indeed, the benefits of queer-inclusive research are twofold; first, it provides nuanced data for researchers and policymakers; and second, it enhances the participant experience by ensuring their engagement with the study validates their lived experience. However, challenges remain to conducting queer-inclusive research and collecting high-quality data on queer minorities.
The very nature of longitudinal studies, which seek to maintain consistent and repeatable measures over time, presents an even greater challenge to appropriately capturing queerness. This paper describes how Growing Up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC), a biennial longitudinal study following 10,000 children aged 0-5 years since 2003, recently adapted content to be more inclusive of queer minorities. It further explores the challenges to queer representation that remain.
During the development of Wave 10, when participants will be aged between 19 and 24 years, the LSAC Survey Methodology team reviewed all content to ensure it was inclusive of diverse queer experiences. There were several lenses by which content was reviewed:
Updating gender and sexual orientation descriptors: To ensure gender and sexual orientation descriptors were current and adhered to best practice, multiple stakeholders (including queer youth advocacy groups) were consulted in the process of updating response options.
Modifying items that “other”: Items that assume heteronormativity and cisnormativity can leave queer participants feeling “othered”. To prevent this, items were reviewed and modified to remove heteronormative and cisnormative assumptions. For example, sexual activity items were modified to capture the full range of sexual experiences without establishing a hierarchy of activities. Pregnancy and parenting items were modified to be inclusive of same-sex couples and people who are trans or gender diverse.
Removing gendered language: Items were reviewed, and all unnecessarily gendered language was removed. For example, “his/her” was modified to “their”, and “maternity/paternity leave” was modified to “parental” leave.
While content changes such as these mark progress in queer inclusivity, challenges to queer representation remain. For example, quantitative research requires the use of categories and labels, limiting the scope of self-identification. Standardised measures are preferred for their validity and cross-sample comparability, and small sample sizes restrict the scope of analyses. Further, some measures score men and women differently, with no scoring options for people who are gender diverse.
Queer inclusivity is an important goal, and researchers should not be discouraged by the challenges and limitations. Taking steps to capture diverse queer experiences is vital, and reluctance to modify measures in a longitudinal study should not get in the way of progress. Longitudinal studies that evolve alongside participants are more likely to maintain high response rates from diverse participants and capture more meaningful data. This produces better quality data which is essential for describing and explaining inequalities.

https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/hkc5yM1BIR2y-mm1UPVeeHVyAlDgr-uJebIZ_CUn6oTidH3tS2Kkl0RwzrX4dQmv.jKTgQbhWB-n9tpLD?startTime=1669171317000

Special populations and inclusive research methods
Zoom Breakout Room 1
14:00
14:00
15min
Address-based sampling using the Geo-coded National Address File
Shane Compton, Joseph Daffy

Contemporary Australian social research—particularly for specific localities—faces a variety of challenges. The rapid decline in landline use and decline in telephone survey production rates means that random digit dialling (RDD) telephone surveys are impractical for all but the largest states. Although nonprobability online access panels offer rapid and inexpensive access to sample, error is greater than probability samples and regional quotas may be hard or even impossible to meet. Face-to-face surveys have become more challenging as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, with the Australian Bureau of Statistics increasingly transitioning away from this mode.

Address-based sampling (A-BS) was developed in the U.S. as a response to the challenge of declining landline coverage. Although it was eclipsed in popularity by dual-frame RDD as a response to this challenge, it has proved to be enduring in the longer-term in the face of declining telephone survey production rates. In this paper, we address considerations in the conduct of A-BS surveys in Australia. A-BS surveys are largely insulated from the decline in telephone survey production by the use of mail as a primary means of contact, typically in sequential multi-mode design (push-to-web then hard copy).

The Geo-coded National Address File (G-NAF) is used as the sampling frame for A-BS surveys fielded by the Social Research Centre (SRC). The G-NAF is the authoritative source of information on physical addresses in Australia. It combines address information from multiple official sources, including state and territory land agencies, the electoral roll and Australia Post in one dataset. It is managed by Geoscape Australia (previously the Public Sector Mapping Authority) and accessible under open data terms through data.gov.au. We provide an overview of how we draw samples from the G-NAF, including:
• Reconciling records from multiple sources.
• Validating the address is specific enough to be delivered to a single residence (as opposed to a block of apartments).
• Appending Australia Post Delivery Point Identifiers (uniquely identifies a physical point to which Australia Post delivers mail).
• Washing non-residential addresses (factory, car space, office, shed, etc) and deduplicating addresses.
• Statistical sampling to achieve an even distribution within strata.
• Using expected stratum-level response rates to estimate the final achieve sample.

We also describe field methods. The SRC has used two different protocols with differing levels of response maximisation based around engagement and reminder activities.

Finally, we address strengths and weaknesses of A-BS using the G-NAF. Strengths include higher response rates than are possible under a telephone design, likely greater longevity than telephone surveys and ability to target small areas. Weaknesses include high cost (particularly for designs that seek to maximise response rates), over-representation of older adults, the more highly educated and women, extended time in field and difficulties implementing within-household selection procedures.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/sFdBbpep0OoacPzm634BiKe4bVY9lbHVDFWPYTVAhPA0z5bW5jP-TMNaiTTN1hdG.b2WvY5pK2mJq3Prh?startTime=1669172420000

Survey sampling methodology
Zoom Breakout Room 3
14:00
15min
Critical realist empirical research: operationalising a philosophy as a methodology in quantitative research
Dr Catherine Hastings

This paper describes and evaluates the application of an explicitly critical realist methodology to a quantitative doctoral research project on the causes of family homelessness in Australia. It focuses on how I applied the abstract philosophy of critical realism as a concrete and practical framework for empirical research. Therefore, it profiles the critical realist-informed methodological and analytical process I used to move from empirical statistical data analysis to develop a theoretical model explaining why some Australian families become homeless, and others do not. The paper demonstrates the role of critical realism in informing and defining my research approach and study design.

Critical realism offers a strong critique of positivism, yet statistical methods are usually associated with a more positivist-leaning philosophy of science. Therefore, a central objective of the presentation will be to summarise my arguments for the appropriate use of statistical methods within a critical realist paradigm and provide an example of how I did this.

First, I outline several core foundations of critical realism, in plain English. These include what critical realism has to say about the nature of the social world (ontology) and how we can know it (epistemology). I show the impact of these philosophical principles on my understanding of a complex and contingent causal complexity, conceptualisation of the relationship between structure and agency, and the increasing adoption of an interdisciplinary approach to my inherently sociological research.

Second, I outline the two data analysis stages of my approach. 1) Empirical Analysis. The initial focus was to use quantitative data to develop a description of the nature, characteristics and relationships defining family homelessness in Australia. I used a mixture of descriptive statistics and panel regression techniques on ABS Estimation of Homelessness, Specialist Homelessness Service administrative, and Journeys Home longitudinal survey data. In these analyses, I was looking for characteristics and patterns that suggest the presence of structures, mechanisms and contexts relevant to answering the core research question of the thesis: what are the causal mechanisms of contemporary ‘cultural’ homelessness for disadvantaged Australian families with children? 2) Theoretical analysis. Due to the ontological commitments of critical realism, we must explain what we observe by theorising the unobservable causal mechanisms produced by the generative powers of social structures (the social objects making up our social world). Developing explanatory theories, therefore, involves processes of abstraction and inference. First, to conceptually understand the nature of homelessness—the internal and external relations that define it—through structural analysis. Then, to explain why homelessness occurs—by asking ‘what makes homelessness possible’—by theorising through casual analysis the necessary and sufficient causal mechanisms and conditions responsible.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/bMvRMHyt1mxBmr3v9JEMtzw40XMlR7ie_q-pDBV0BwdJ1Nf47TlmI5mkRiBW5d4n.4ITWOzq9QFTcwMgN?startTime=1669172442000

Innovative methods for social research
Zoom Breakout Room 2
14:00
15min
Reforming business engagement: Using Human-Centred Design to reshape data provider correspondence
Mahtut Yaynu and Susannah Breaden

Both businesses and the Australian Bureau of Statistic (ABS) want to use more contemporary methods to communicate and to supply data to each other. The ABS has several methods of communicating with business data providers (‘providers’), termed correspondence. We assumed there is a positive relationship between fit-for-purpose contemporary correspondence and provider satisfaction. Furthermore, we hypothesised that provider satisfaction will have a positive impact on provider behaviour, potentially reducing follow-up work and costs. This project took a Human-Centred Design approach to investigate the experiences of providers regarding ABS correspondence. We consulted ABS internal stakeholders both as internal users and as sources of provider insights for this project. The project followed a divergent/convergent-thinking Double Diamond method. A core principle of the Human-Centred Design method is to establish the user needs before starting to design solutions. Therefore, the directions of this project were determined by the information uncovered in the ‘Discovery’ phase and refined through testing with providers. The results found providers prefer a modern, integrated, digital experience. Including coloured text, infographics, and visual instructions. A strong variation emerged in needs and expectations between new-to-survey-collection providers (and those ‘inheriting’ the collection within their business from former colleagues) and continuing providers. Providers preferred having a short, plain language explanation of the collection’s compulsory nature, and for this to be clear from initial correspondence through to final reminder. In earlier phases of the project, providers strongly indicated the importance of understanding the value and relevance of the collection to their industry. However, prototype testing found it was considered a ‘nice to have’. Our results show that provider experience could be improved by correspondence integrating with providers’ business processes in a more modern way. There is an inherent tension between providers understand their obligation to submit their data and providers having a positive experience. Both may influence provider behaviour. Careful consideration on timing of correspondence, design elements with minimal and more visually focused content, and overall contact strategies is important. This includes varying contact preferences and considering the complexities inherent with the wide range of different business sizes and industries across ABS business survey collections.

Human Centred Design and Knowledge Systems
Zoom Breakout Room 1
14:20
14:20
15min
Comparing approaches to specifying family SEP to model child outcomes in Aotearoa New Zealand
Natalia Boven

Family socioeconomic position (SEP) has a marked influence on the characteristics of children’s lives and is a key concept for understanding child health and educational outcomes. Diversity of family forms has increased both internationally and in Aotearoa New Zealand, including a growth in the prevalence of single-parent and stepparent families. Despite this, there has been little research examining the best approaches to measuring family-level SEP to model child outcomes, particularly for diverse families and in Aotearoa New Zealand.
This presentation will describe research conducted to address this shortfall by examining a range of approaches to measuring family SEP for children of different ages and living in a range of family types. Data were accessed using the Integrated Data Infrastructure, a collection of deidentified administrative data sets for the full New Zealand population linked at the individual level. Family structure and SEP data (education, occupation, and income) were sourced from the 2013 Census, while data on health and educational outcomes were sourced from birth records, b4 school check data, and secondary schools data. The risk of low birth weight and preterm birth (perinatal period), dental caries and obesity (preschoolers) and educational achievement (teenagers) were modelled.
Analyses revealed inconsistent results regarding the best approaches to incorporating the SEP of biological parents for modelling birth outcomes. Analyses were more consistent for modelling outcomes for preschoolers and teenagers. For these groups, the socioeconomic resources of both resident and non-resident biological parents, as well as resident stepparents, appeared to influence child outcomes for children living with two-resident parents, children living in single-parent families with an identifiable non-resident parent, and children living in stepparent families with an identifiable non-resident parent (this family type was only examined for teenagers). Overall, this research demonstrated that it was important to incorporate the socioeconomic information from all identifiable resident biological parents, resident stepparents, and non-resident biological parents to adequately characterise the SEP of families when modelling child outcomes.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/sFdBbpep0OoacPzm634BiKe4bVY9lbHVDFWPYTVAhPA0z5bW5jP-TMNaiTTN1hdG.b2WvY5pK2mJq3Prh?startTime=1669173689000

Data linkage and modelling
Zoom Breakout Room 3
15:00
15:00
90min
Combining Census and survey data to create reliable local-area estimates
Andrew Ward

Sample surveys are a common way to collect data and make inferences about a population of interest. Stakeholders and users of the data often need to evaluate or inform policies at the local area level, and additional requirements may later arise that were unknown at the survey design stage. Cost considerations necessarily limit the number of surveys that can be collected at the local level, so that standard survey estimation techniques often yield unreliable results when applied to local areas (such as Local Government Areas, LGAs).

“Small area” statistical methods have been developed for these situations, where the survey data alone is too scarce to yield reliable estimates. The methods work by combining person-level data (from the survey) with area-level auxiliary data (from the Australian Census of Population and Housing, for instance) to improve the reliability of estimates. The survey data is used to calculate the contemporary, quantitative relationships between respondent characteristics and the survey’s key outcome variables. These relationships are then “projected” onto each individual area, using the area-level auxiliary data, to generate reliable estimates that reflect the population characteristics of each area. This approach makes maximum use of the available survey and auxiliary data and ensures that results for each area are as reliable and representative as possible.

This workshop will give an overview of considerations, methods, tools and outputs for small area estimation. Topics covered will include the following:
* Design considerations, including questionnaire items and sources of auxiliary data;
* Preparation of survey and auxiliary data for modelling;
* Model building and production of estimates; and
* Options for presentation and visualisation of results.

Material and examples will focus on models for small areas, but mention will also be made of small groups in the population to which the same techniques can be applied. Comments will be made about implementation of the methods in R, including package recommendations, but references to the applicable literature will be provided to enable working with other software.

The target audiences for the workshop are policy makers and quantitative researchers who have an interest in getting more detailed results from their surveys, along with survey analysts wishing to expand their statistical capabilities and tools.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/sFdBbpep0OoacPzm634BiKe4bVY9lbHVDFWPYTVAhPA0z5bW5jP-TMNaiTTN1hdG.b2WvY5pK2mJq3Prh?startTime=1669176151000

Zoom Breakout Room 3
15:00
90min
Enabling care in healthcare improvement through video-reflexive ethnography
Ann Dadich, Suyin Hor, Jessica Mesman, Michael Gionfriddo, Christy Noble, Mary Wyer, Joanne Hilder

Care for others, and being cared for, is at the heart of healthcare. As health services continue to grapple with the problem of unsafe care, collaborative approaches to healthcare improvement (such as co-design and co-production) have been promoted to encourage the bottom-up engagement of multiple stakeholders – including practitioners, patients, family members, and researchers – in improving care. Although collaboration is emphasised, conflict, dissonance and other tensions can still arise from the range of perspectives, priorities and power dynamics involved. Care, therefore, is also central to collaborative research, in health.

In this panel discussion, we draw on different international studies to describe practices of care that support collaborative and reflexive practice improvement using video-reflexive ethnography (VRE). In particular, we showcase how transformative learning and improvement can be facilitated through the reflexive analysis of video footage of everyday healthcare practices. In VRE, both participants and researchers become vulnerable through having their behaviours, understandings, and assumptions questioned or challenged. This scrutiny and critical reflexivity require acts of care, in turn, to foster the psychological safety of all involved.

We will discuss, deliberate on, and debate how VRE researchers and participants care for each other during fieldwork and reflexive discussions in ways that mirrored how they usually care for colleagues, patients, and family members. Through dialogue, we will demonstrate how attention to care is a skill, not only central to healthcare, but also to the kinds of inclusive and collaborative practices that enable meaningful and sustained learning and improvement.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/DQyFemhYuHAtiF8VAZtGHthBD7bhJIKNDV36yYAKbW1RoSCVLBHumyMwcDiYeOtK.YNzP6nTeuurd-mnV?startTime=1669176057000

Zoom Breakout Room 1
15:00
90min
Researching in Indigenous Communities: an applied indigenist model
Professor Aunty Kerrie Doyle

Researchers in Indigenous communities need to understand the history and trauma associated with the act of research. In this interactive workshop, we introduce participants to a model of indigenist research and partnership building that is able to be adapted across disciplines and communities. We present a successful research project to demonstrate how to apply the model.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/A3batoI5Dj7wh21HwIeuV4c6VC7fSAhE2sbf1facqBgCmv5uW-71zk-KqvpRrdmX.MseX362wRqeSZ2ec

Zoom Breakout Room 2
17:00
17:00
15min
Findings from the first two waves of a small Australian online panel
Markus Hahn

This paper presents the first findings from a small Australian probability-based online panel, a pilot we designed to support a larger panel we plan for 2023. Trialling a dual-frame sampling strategy, while also conducting two recruitment experiments, we examine initial response outcomes and subsequent attrition for various samples and treatment groups. Using data from the first two waves, we test the representativeness of the entire sample, and all relevant subsamples, against benchmarks from the Australian census and several other Australian surveys. We use the usual demographics—age, gender, education—but also measures such as employment status, well-being or health. In wave two, we test different longitudinal incentives, focussing on the impact of loss aversion and present bias on retention. With more waves planed, we will trial several questionnaire designs and run additional experiments.

A probability sample of about 600 adults was recruited from the Australian electoral roll (through listed addresses) and from the population of Australian mobile owners (through RDD). Respondents were enrolled in the panel after completing the first wave questionnaire. Panel members were asked to complete an online questionnaire in each wave, with no other response modes offered (push-to-web only). Initial contacts occurred through letters, postcards, and SMS text messages; subsequent contacts occurred through email.

We conducted two recruitment experiments to refine our strategy for the larger panel we are planning. That new panel, funded and owned by a major Australian university, will allow academic researchers to contribute questions for free or on a cost-recovery basis. The first experiment tested the saliency of university sponsorship, while also stressing the non-commercial aspect of the panel. The second experiment tested the impact of emphasising the longitudinal nature of the survey, stressing that members are expected to participate multiple times during the lifetime of the panel.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/qGI1WNCmj9G4HgixbIB8Jn77hqdoT8HQ84okW-XQOl5w7abUQaPaJZF1NddyEE0l.hkeH8YfaNKkfYrx7?startTime=1669183413000

Panel recruitment and retention
Zoom Breakout Room 3
17:00
15min
Historical Institutionalism as Method: Applications and Uses at the Micro, Meso, and Macro Levels of Analysis
Dr Michael de Percy FCILT

Historical institutionalism is one of the three New Institutionalisms. As a research method, the approach typically involves archival research and semi-structured interviews - employing the research techniques of both the historian and the political scientist - to understand the impact of institutional legacies on the present. I have used historical institutionalism to analyse industry policy over time for cross-national comparisons of transport and telecommunications policies and have found the approach effective at the meso-level of analysis. Recently, however, I have applied this approach to the macro-level in geopolitics (to understand institutional exhaustion), and I am currently developing a research project focused on the micro-level to understand how institutions influence the development of military doctrine through a case study of operational tactics. This presentation will demonstrate the analysis of political phenomena over time, drawing on my model of path dependent, punctuated equilibrium. It will outline how to recognise and analyse exogenous and endogenous critical junctures in applying the model to temporal comparative and institutional studies. In doing so, I will share some of the unique insights I have developed as both a practitioner and an academic.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/fe80_c8_scf5yQJEY_Vv6vJ6R7XFjJUKwZnkpSbPOus_gP1IIKiSQO8FF_LSLDiZ.j0lwiy1bIA1ehAAO?startTime=1669182574000

Innovative methods for social research
Zoom Breakout Room 2
17:00
15min
How do English language teachers incorporate critical thinking as a strategy to drive learning outcomes?
Sudarat Srirak

The English language curriculum in Thailand has been recently developed by incorporating critical thinking as a strategy to drive outcomes. Critical thinking is considered a goal-oriented thinking skill that optimises language learning processes and enhances learning outcomes. This research aimed to examine the incorporation of critical thinking into English language classrooms. It specifically focused on classroom teaching strategies and activities employed by English language teachers to apply critical thinking in their teaching practices. A mixed methods research design integrating quantitative and qualitative strategies was adopted. An online survey was first administered to explore teacher perceptions of classroom application of critical thinking. Fifty English language teachers teaching across six English programs in one higher education institution in Thailand were involved in the survey phase. A qualitative case study of 11 teachers was subsequently conducted. The qualitative participants were individually interviewed to gain more insights into their classroom practices. Data analyses revealed that participants mainly incorporated critical thinking by teaching the skills of making arguments supported with reasons or evidence, giving reasons logically, applying creative thinking, and making a fair judgement. The strategies and activities that were mostly applied in the participants' classrooms were questioning, discussions, presentations, debates, essay writing, and project works. The findings seem to suggest that English teachers' teaching practices were aligned with the curriculum development. However, the data indicated participants' varying levels of confidence and degree of uncertainty to implement critical thinking in a certain class, particularly with low-proficient learners of English. Discussion of the findings and the implications for English language teachers and the English teaching sector were presented.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/kl7zX6HT6bPlwSMdjyCiajLHw64xPnP09-fMoKjKQO1L8aMGwJyJs4Fws2C-5g8.8Ec3XepltHW7qMWn?startTime=1669183287000

Mixed methods
Zoom Breakout Room 1
17:20
17:20
15min
Combining qualitative data and causal machine learning for better estimation
Patrick Rehill

Double Machine Learning (DML) is a causal machine learning method that promises substantial benefits when estimating average treatment effects in observational data, particularly where existing theory is too weak to identify controls or justify a quasi-experimental approach. DML benefits from much of the power and flexibility of predictive models, while also giving the unbiased causal estimates of traditional regression approaches. However, in-practice it often involves relaxing causal identification assumptions, assuming algorithms will correctly identify controls in high-dimensional datasets.

Explicitly constraining model fitting with a causal graph (a diagram laying out which variables cause changes in which) is one solution that has been suggested for better causal identification, but the benefits of this approach are yet to be established and a proper methodology for constructing them has not been laid out (excluding data-driven causal discovery which has its own serious drawbacks).

This presentation looks at where DML can be useful in the social sciences and where we might be able to draw in qualitative data to build causal graphs and improve inference. It covers two studies, one on returns of education and one on the effect of private schooling on standardised testing performance. In both cases, causal graphs were constructed by interviewees with varying levels of background knowledge and models fit under these constraints were compared with unconstrained models. The return on education study used instrumental variables to get yardstick causal estimates for comparison. The private schooling study uses semi-synthetic data to establish ground truth. While both cases have good existing theory, relying only on interviews tests whether it is possible to build pragmatic causal assumptions even when theory is poor (as this is often when DML is used).

In both studies, constrained and unconstrained DML estimation performed roughly equally well on large samples, though unconstrained models performed worse on small subsamples (n = 1000). Importantly, even a basic level of background knowledge outperformed unconstrained DML in these cases. Combining up multiple graphs into one further reduced bias.

Unconstrained DML seems to be a useful approach where identification is achieved through control-on-observables and where the sample size is large. However, a mixed-methods approach where qualitative data is used to shape causal assumptions may improve estimation where large samples are not available.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/fe80_c8_scf5yQJEY_Vv6vJ6R7XFjJUKwZnkpSbPOus_gP1IIKiSQO8FF_LSLDiZ.j0lwiy1bIA1ehAAO?startTime=1669184550000

Innovative methods for social research
Zoom Breakout Room 2
17:20
15min
Nonprobability recruitment methods for a place-based academic online panel
Sebastian Kocar

The Tasmania Project was established in 2020 by the Institute for Social Change (ISC) at the University of Tasmania (UTAS). The main aim of the project has been to give Tasmanians a voice and to gather important information that can support good decisions made by and for the community. The project uses a volunteer sample of adult Tasmanian residents, currently consisting of about 4,100 registered panellists, who participate in 3-4 online surveys a year. To date, 15 surveys have been conducted as part of The Tasmania Project.
Over time, the project used the majority of the main nonprobability sampling approaches to recruitment of survey participants, including self-selection, purposive, convenience and snowball sampling. Since April 2020, the study has been advertised across various social media, and on the UTAS and the ISC websites. At the start of the project, various other media, such as three major newspapers, digital media, commercial radio stations and television, were used to promote the research project and to encourage Tasmanians to fill out an expression-of-interest form. Also, to recruit an underrepresented subpopulation for a particular survey project in late-2020, targeted Facebook ads were used.
In 2022, we expanded the range of recruitment approaches to refresh the panel and to improve sample representativeness. We used other mailing lists, such as the UTAS student mailing list, to recruit survey participants who were invited to register as panellists at the end of the questionnaires. We also tested snowball sampling as a recruitment approach by encouraging The Tasmania Project survey participants to share an anonymous link to the questionnaire with other adult Tasmanians (such as family, friends, colleagues).
This presentation will discuss the nonprobability-based recruitment approaches used in The Tasmania Project between April 2020 and September 2022. I will also present the recruitment results of using those fundamentally different nonprobability approaches from three perspectives: recruitment outcomes (sample sizes), attrition over time, and representation bias. The cost dimension will also be briefly discussed.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/qGI1WNCmj9G4HgixbIB8Jn77hqdoT8HQ84okW-XQOl5w7abUQaPaJZF1NddyEE0l.hkeH8YfaNKkfYrx7?startTime=1669184529000

Panel recruitment and retention
Zoom Breakout Room 3
17:20
15min
Using Qualitative Interviews to Find Data or Answers in Cultural Communities?
Huda Shakil Ahmad Syyed

The main focus of this paper is to understand how qualitative methodology such as interviews could be a preferred way to explore and understand cultural practices such as Female Genital Cutting (FGC) in conservative societies like the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. This paper explores how researchers from similar backgrounds can use semi-structured interviews as an effective way to gain a deeper understanding about a practice that has not been acknowledged by the government and is rarely discussed in public. Considering the sensitive nature of this topic within Pakistani society and the ethical fragility of this kind of research which is pursued through western academic institutions or university settings; it is essential to acknowledge the cultural notions involved in research design methodology. This paper takes a closer look at why narratives or story-telling concepts can be useful in gathering data about non-white cultures and communities. These ideas will be investigated through an ongoing thesis title, “Political invisibility of Female Genital Cutting in Pakistani society: Understanding this tradition and its implications on women in the Dawoodi Bohra community”. The research design includes interviews of women who had FGC performed on them as young girls, and it uncovers the complexities and sensitives that need to be considered when analysing or presenting this data. This research design is based on the premise that there are no government statements, statistics or discussions about FGC in Pakistan; and therefore, this research is a qualitative stepping stone towards collecting data about this cultural practice which is shrouded in secrecy. It examines FGC within a close-knit community of Pakistan known as Dawoodi Bohras and establishes a nuanced understanding of qualitative data in cultural settings. In essence, it outlines the significance of story-telling and sharing during interviews which leads to useful qualitative data analysis.

Keywords: Female Genital Cutting, Qualitative Data, Culture, Public Dialogue

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/kl7zX6HT6bPlwSMdjyCiajLHw64xPnP09-fMoKjKQO1L8aMGwJyJs4Fws2C-5g8.8Ec3XepltHW7qMWn?startTime=1669184554000

Special populations and inclusive research methods
Zoom Breakout Room 1
17:40
17:40
15min
A Simpler Approach to Interactive Topic Modeling
Sam Hames, Kateryna Kasianenko

Current topic modelling algorithms have proven useful for the analysis of
large volumes of text. But despite their utility it can still be challenging
to make use of topic modelling, especially for projects requiring a more
interpretive approach. These challenges include awkward computational
workflows with long iteration cycles, limited affordances for editing and
interrogating the resulting models after they have been built, difficulty
interpreting the resulting models, and the difficulty of operationalising
complex numerical models as part of an answer to a research question.

To address these shortcomings we have taken a step back from the conventional
probablistic or linear algebraic approaches to topic modelling and developed
a new approach using a much simpler foundation of boolean information
retrieval and basic clustering of words into groups. Despite giving up on
much of the mathematical sophistication of existing approaches our approach
enables a new class of dynamic interaction between analyst and topic model,
and hopefully allowing for a more concrete link between the created model and
the research question.

We have implemented a prototype of our approach as a Python toolkit enabling
usage as a software library, command line tool, or through a web interface
for interactivity. We will demonstrate the effectiveness of this
implementation and method through a detailed case study on a complex social
media dataset, complemented by a live demonstration of what the analysis
process can look like. In doing so we will also talk about our plans for
future work and extension of this approach.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/fe80_c8_scf5yQJEY_Vv6vJ6R7XFjJUKwZnkpSbPOus_gP1IIKiSQO8FF_LSLDiZ.j0lwiy1bIA1ehAAO?startTime=1669185660000

Innovative methods for social research
Zoom Breakout Room 2
17:40
15min
Characterising Political Discussion Networks on Twitter
Robert James Ackland

Social media have become an integral part of the public sphere. It is important to understand how social media are facilitating or impeding political deliberation, a process whereby individuals with differing perspectives and opinions engage in discussion, potentially revising their opinions upon hearing the arguments of others. This presentation outlines new research into political deliberation on Twitter. We used a set of debate- and election-related hashtags to first undertake a large-scale collection of tweets authored during the first 2020 US presidential debate. We then used the v2 Twitter API (accessed via the voson.tcn R package) to collect the wider Twitter conversations that these tweets were part of, so our final dataset also included debate-related tweets that did not feature the target hashtags. The data collection resulted in a dataset of over 11K conversations (with each conversation represented as a tree network with a “conversation starter” tweet as the root node and all the subsequent replies and replies-to-replies). We then implemented an approach for constructing random samples of root-to-leaf interaction sequences extracted from these conversations, with the samples being used for subsequent qualitative coding of discussion dynamics. This presentation provides an overview of the conversation data collection and sampling approach and then outlines some preliminary findings regarding the deliberative nature of Twitter activity during the first debate, constructing a measure of deliberation involving the depth and breadth of conversation tree networks.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/jG2oPYAxGbCXdVm76fy6IhAi4brxwMoxOeP2QCK3nrPdeQ5j9wU0fMRuutuGsktE.GGS6vN76zGxbrfPv?startTime=1669184529000

Social Media and Social Network analysis
Zoom Breakout Room 3
17:40
15min
The Educative Research in School: Design, Ethics and Method
Rosi Bombieri, Federica Valbusa, Luigina Mortari

An educational research can be explorative or transformative. The former aims to explore an educational phenomenon in order to increase the existing knowledge about it; the latter, which can be specifically defined as educative, introduces new hypothetically meaningful experiences into educational contexts and then investigates them. When an educative research involves children, it takes the form of a research “for”, and not only “with”, children, because it not only aims to acquire data from them, but also, and first of all, it aims to provide them with something good, by proposing activities designed to enhance their flourishing. Following the naturalistic epistemology (Lincoln and Guba, 1985), a privileged context to study the educational phenomena, and then to set an educative research, is the scholastic one. Our purpose for the conference is to present the design, ethics and method of a research for children in school.
This type of research is designed to have both an educative goal, i.e. to enhance children’s flourishing by involving them in positive educative activities, and a heuristic goal, i.e. to rigorously study what effectively emerges in terms of the children’s development resulting from the realized educative activities, hence the used instruments must have this double valence.
The design and realization of a research for children should be guided by the ethics of care (Mortari, 2022a), which requires the researcher to seek the benefit of the participants by making the research time a good time for them and to engage in ethically oriented behaviors that include a true listening to the children, and this requires to bracket prejudices and expectations, and to give them time to express their thoughts, and this requires to construct with them a positive relationship, based on respect and trust.
A suitable method for the researches carried out in educational contexts is the phenomenological one, which requires researchers to maintain their attention faithful to the considered phenomena (Husserl, 2012) in order to construct a descriptive theory to explain them by acting the epistemological principle of “epoché”, i.e. by bracketing all the previous knowledge about the object of study. The phenomenological method searches for the essence of the phenomena, however, in the empirical research the essence that is searched for is not the eidetic one, which is general and necessary and then shared by all the phenomena of the same type, but the essence of the concreteness, which is contingent and situated and then shared only by the phenomena analyzed in the research. According to this empirical phenomenological method (Mortari, 2022b), the process of qualitative data analysis follows successive steps of labeling and categorization, with the purpose to elaborate a theory which is grounded in the investigated phenomena, not generalizable but still useful to better understand similar educational contexts.
Examples of researches for children following the empirical phenomenological method and regarding ethical and emotional education in school will be presented.

References

  • Husserl, E. (2012). Ideas. Translated by W. R. Boyce Gibson. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Lincoln, Y.S. and Guba, E.G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park (CA): Sage.
  • Mortari, L. (2022a). The philosophy of care. Berlin: Springer.
  • Mortari, L. (2022b). Fenomenologia empirica. Genova: Il Melangolo.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/kl7zX6HT6bPlwSMdjyCiajLHw64xPnP09-fMoKjKQO1L8aMGwJyJs4Fws2C-5g8.8Ec3XepltHW7qMWn?startTime=1669185816000

Special populations and inclusive research methods
Zoom Breakout Room 1
18:00
18:00
15min
Guidelines to a Ten-step Process for Concept Card Interviewing
Hoai Anh Nguyen Dang

Background: Researchers interested in business and management practices can gather significant insights from interviewing stakeholders within workplace settings, which supports naturalistic enquiries. However, stereotyped responses, or answers which are clichés or platitudes, can limit the usefulness of the interview data, with conventionally conducted “question-answer” interviews potentially rendered meaningless should employees be too guarded in their interactions. This suggests researchers may need to look beyond conventional data collection techniques when interviewing employees, using a concept card technique. Although more commonly used in health and education settings, a concept card technique, being an extension of photo-elicitation, is one approach which may be helpful when interviewing in the workplace.

Aim: Much of the research on photo-elicitation, and the related use of concept cards, has focused more on the outcomes (result) of employing the approach to interviewing, rather than how (process) to use the method. It has even been suggested reason researchers have favoured alternative methods over photo-elicitation is the lack of pragmatic guidance regarding how to use the approach. As such, the aim of this paper is to develop a set of protocol regarding the planning, design, and use of concept cards to assist researchers wishing to utilise the method.

Description: The study developed a ten-step process, adopting a deductive reasoning approach to developing researcher-gathered concept cards and implementing these in interviews. This ten-step process was then tested within a PhD study by interviewing internal and external stakeholders of a sample of Vietnamese companies regarding social benefits of Green Innovation. Green Innovation is not, in itself, a sensitive topic but is an emerging concept. As such, there was a very distinct possibility that understanding of Green Innovation amongst the participants could be low which could cause the participants to be reluctant, or uncomfortable, with sharing their views. This created a challenging proposition for the novice researcher undertaking the interviews, but one where it was felt the use of concept cards would be valuable interview aids.

Outcomes: The ten-step process for concept card interviewing was an effective framework for investigating the social impact of Green Innovation in Vietnam. Providing participants with the opportunity to self-select concept cards for discussion encouraged responses based on each participant’s individual stories and helped minimise clichéd responses. Further, it helped reduce barriers between the interviewer and participants, with participants enjoying the ability to provide their own input, leading to collaborative knowledge expansion and a marked increase in the motivation of participants to explore Green Innovation in more depth.

Conclusion: Following the ten-step process, the concept card approach to interviewing can be successfully applied in a workplace setting, helping to minimise the potential of clichéd responses from participants and encouraging high levels of participant engagement within the interviews.

Interviewing methods
Zoom Breakout Room 2
18:00
15min
Observing the alt-right on Reddit: constructing unique units of observation and analysis from platform activity
Nicholas Corbett

Social media platforms produce distinct units of observation that must be translated into our conventional units of analysis. For example, the alt-right is commonly qualified with inconsistent terminology as a social media phenomenon. Instead of imposing additional terminology a priori, this project instead explores and queries what we are actually seeing: patterns of activity specific to the platform, such as Reddit. To connect such patterns of activity to a broader framework informed by the theoretical assumptions of online extremism, frame analysis and social network analysis are used to observe and qualify the alt-right in 2 forms. First, thread activity is qualified as frames that represent Reddit’s content. Second, 2-mode networks of frames, users and subreddits constitute ephemeral instances of the alt-right. By delineating the alt-right into 2 interrelated units of analysis, this project captures the alt-right as an ephemeral component of a broader social media platform infrastructure. What we see of the alt-right at one moment is contingent to what Reddit is at that time. This approach explicitly problematises the longstanding pattern of assuming that our conventional units of analysis apply to platform activity. It is necessary to first understand what is happening as a platform activity before translating it to a conventional unit of analysis.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/jG2oPYAxGbCXdVm76fy6IhAi4brxwMoxOeP2QCK3nrPdeQ5j9wU0fMRuutuGsktE.GGS6vN76zGxbrfPv?startTime=1669184529000

Social Media and Social Network analysis
Zoom Breakout Room 3
18:20
18:20
15min
An interdisciplinary approach to understanding Indigenous Australian governance networks
Francisca Borquez

Available field-based research (Smith 2011; Hunt et al 2008) has characterised Indigenous governance as inter-connected relationships, rules and ways of behaving between people, places and things (past, present and future). The nodes in this networked system are people and groups of people (families, clans, leaders, nations, communities and organisations), places (country, sacred sites, camping places, personal sites), events (ceremony, ritual, births and death), and objects (structures, natural resources, species). The connecting ties include kinship (descent and marriage), membership of demographic categories (age, gender and generation), and other affiliations (historical, ceremonial, geographic and economic). The great advantage of such networked systems is that they can scale in a flexible manner: small local groups can link horizontally to groups in other geographic areas and scale-up vertically to form larger polities and alliances of networks. This recursive pattern of expanding connections and pathways is a familiar one depicted in Indigenous kinship, ceremony, songs, dreaming, paintings and so on.

Although there is extensive anthropological research through kinship studies, genealogical methods and cultural mapping, these approaches do not fully capture the reproduction and agency of Indigenous governance networks. Our project draws on anthropology and network methods to develop a novel approach for researching indigenous governance. Indigenous governance networks can be conceived of as multimodal (different types of actors) and multiplex (different types of ties) networks. A network conceptualisation allows us to use Social Network Analysis (SNA), for example: can we identify “structural holes” (gaps in the social structure of communication) (Burt, 1995) in Indigenous governance networks, and if so, what are their properties and what benefits do they confer? We also explore the use of Actor-Network Theory (Latour, 2005), which provides theory and methods to study networks of human and non-human actants and as such, is well-suited for capturing the complexity of Indigenous Australian networks.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/jG2oPYAxGbCXdVm76fy6IhAi4brxwMoxOeP2QCK3nrPdeQ5j9wU0fMRuutuGsktE.GGS6vN76zGxbrfPv?startTime=1669184529000

Social Media and Social Network analysis
Zoom Breakout Room 3
10:30
10:30
90min
Choice Modelling in the Social and Behavioural Sciences
Len Coote

Choice modelling is a specialised area of micro-econometrics. Choice modellers use the microdata of individual choices. The choices could span a wide range of phenomena: examples include the decision to get married, to enter the workforce, and to buy private health insurance. Choice modelling has found great application in several areas of applied economics, including environmental, health, and transport economics. Interest in choice models is also reflected in the academic literatures in business and psychology. This short workshop presents an overview of the family of choice models that are used by choice modellers. The foundational model is Daniel McFadden's conditional logistic regression. McFadden is a professor emeritus at UC Berkeley and Nobel Laureate. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences in 2000 for developing the conditional logit model and for his contributions to microeconomic theory. Since the development of McFadden's model, there has been much interest in extensions and generalisations of the model. McFadden's model retrieves the aggregate preferences of samples (populations) of decision makers. Extensions of his model retrieve the aggregate preferences and the unobserved sources of variation in the preferences of decision makers. Academic interest in choice modelling is partly motivated by the useful outputs that choice models generate, including forecasts of demand, price elasticities of demand, and marginal willingness to pay estimates (for changes in the levels of the explanatory variables studied). These outputs can help policymakers to understand the economic value of (for example, health and environmental) goods to consumer-decision makers. This workshop brings these concepts to life with reference to a now classic study from environmental economics focused on competing use values of forestry resources in Canada. The goal of the workshop is to provide an introduction to choice modelling and to highlight its value to researchers and policymakers in the social and behavioural sciences.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/Np2LnBK2oylB6i5NFLyC7vk8mL7StVlZdjj4vQTCJoqTbJ3KUQ9fq3iFDXh7jTrC.U5kPrhYLGtfZdM8o?startTime=1669245603000

Zoom Breakout Room 2
10:30
90min
Making together: A methodology in the making
Ann Dadich, Priya Vaughan, Katherine Boydell

The aim of this workshop is to demonstrate the methodological value of making together – the practice of working with others to create tangible artefacts. This aim will be achieved via a workshop during which a conversation will be curated with scholars, artists, and experts with lived experience of health issues and/or healthcare to understand how they have used this methodology, why, and the associated effects. Participants will be invited to engage in a creative making activity to make together (e.g., craft, digital body mapping, found poetry, etc.), as well as consider and critique how they might incorporate this methodology into their scholarship.

There has been limited scholarly engagement with the methodological benefits of making together. Literature on related areas largely highlights four points. First, making together offers therapeutic benefits, fostering self-expression, relationships, health-seeking behaviours, and personal growth (Harter et al., 2022; Kelly, Steiner, Mason, & Teasdale, 2021). Second, making together can offer pedagogical benefits, opening developmental opportunities, as students learn and form their professional identity (Hyde, 2007; Page, 2018). Third, making together can offer social benefits, serving as a form of activism to raise the profile of, understanding about, and action to address social issues (Hackney, Saunders, Willett, Hill, & Griffin, 2020; Pollitt, Blaise, & Gray, 2022). And fourth, artefacts represent a useful way to collect and analyse data, as well as communicate the associated findings – consider, for instance, photovoice (Krutt, Dyer, Arora, Rollman, & Jozkowski, 2018; Overmars-Marx, Thomése, & Meininger, 2018), research-based theatre (Bleuer, Chin, & Sakamoto, 2018; Brown, Ramsay, Milo, Moore, & Hossain, 2018), and found objects (Camic, 2010). Despite the myriad benefits of artefacts and the act of making together, with few exceptions (Mitchell & de Lange, 2011), the methodological benefits of making together remain underexplored. This workshop offers an opportunity to explore and critique making together as a methodology to aid sense-making and sense-giving.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/6wVWMb2b6X_9QWRg8ZGR0mSDy5gZ_folWvTYWs4wubmAUVvuwnx4f9jPXg_2XSd_.9eniOoEOhLDCIdlf?startTime=1669246291000

Zoom Breakout Room 1
10:30
90min
Presenting information created in Stata
David White

In this short workshop, the team from SDAS will teach participants some important features and tools within Stata to help you present the information that you create in Stata in a more powerful and reproducible manner. You will learn the techniques to create schemes for Stata graphs so that you present uniform graphics for your theses and papers. You will also learn the tools for creating tailored tables that are ready for output to other packages such as Word, Excel, HTML or Latex. We will also how you some valuable tricks with respect to graph output that will help your theses and papers stand-out from others when it comes to presentation of graphical information.

Zoom Breakout Room 3
13:00
13:00
15min
Capitalising on online activity during interview: International student experience with remote learning
Mohd Zahid Juri

This presentation reports on the interview method used in a PhD project inquiring into international students’ living and learning experiences before, during, and after COVID-19. To capitalise on the increased online activities in class settings and in general during the early phases of the pandemic, I drew on Trace Interviews (Dubois & Ford, 2015) and Social Media Scroll Back Method (Robards & Lincoln, 2019). This led me to formulate an online prompt interview as an extension of these existing methods - with a few key differences. Firstly, the online activities/online accounts in the interview work as prompt rather than the main research interest. The online prompt interview uses the online activities to bring about participants’ past or current behaviour, attitudes, or feeling when presented with or surfing through their online accounts across learning management systems (LMSs), e-mail, and social media. Secondly, I used the following strategies in the interview process: (1) Participants were asked to surf multiple accounts during the interview (at least one LMS or E-mail, and one social media), and (2) participants have more control and power as they can decide to show or not show their online activities to the interviewer. To demonstrate the flexibility of online prompt interview, I will present my experience with asking participants to review multiple online accounts during the interview session. I also explore the pros and cons of the method and how the online accounts, though different, gave various angles to answering the main research question.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/hgwslXAzf4qmRv8ipyQ8zMAGRA6ZC19EJzm11t5vL9ztJQFO7ZqqwZRhGSozzL4.GZreddTQcQGSpJ3u?startTime=1669254563000

Interviewing methods
Zoom Breakout Room 2
13:00
15min
Miscarriage Australia: The use of a human centred design approach to design and develop a website to support those affected by miscarriage.
Dr Jade Bilardi

Background: Past research has shown people affected by miscarriage want a website specific to both miscarriage and to Australia that is accessible, comprehensive, evidence-based and informed by reputable experts and healthcare providers.
Objective: The aim of this study was to design, develop and evaluate the Miscarriage Australia website using a human centered design approach (HCD). The human centered design approach is commonly used in software development as it incorporates the end user in the design process in order to ensure the system is usable and meets end users’ needs. In this paper we describe how this approach was applied to ensure the final website met target end user requirements.
Methods: The Miscarriage Australia website [1] was designed using a three-phase approach. Phase 1 (Context and Requirements): involved a review and secondary analysis of existing interview data with those affected by miscarriage (28 cisgender women and 16 cisgender male partners) to determine their online information and content needs. A website content framework, two representative end users (personas) and tone of voice guidelines (Miscarriage Australia’s brand identity and values) were developed by HCD designers to guide the content and design process. Desktop research of existing online miscarriage content was also undertaken to understand current best practice and to inform search engine optimisation strategies. Phase 2 (Design): involved content creation by the research team, with the expert guidance of an advisory committee of 14 medical, nursing and allied health professionals. Content was copy edited by the designers to ensure it met end-users needs and the tone of voice guidelines. Phase 3 (Usability testing): Specialist HCD website developers were engaged to undertake branding and build of the website. Two iterative cycles of usability testing and development were undertaken with 10 end users to test website branding, usability, acceptability, accessibility and functionality. Results were summarised after each round and used to refine and finalise the website.
Results: Phase 1 interview data analysis confirmed the need for a comprehensive, reputable Australian website for those affected by miscarriage. Two user personas – ‘Dhalia’ and ‘Ellinor’ - were developed to represent the target audience, including their behaviours, motivators and goals in accessing the website. Designers recommended Miscarriage Australia’s tone of voice be calm, empathetic, hopeful and authoritative. Content was reviewed by expert advisory committee members over two rounds to ensure it was evidence based and reflected best practice. Feedback from usability testing showed users felt the website looked professional, trustworthy, informed by a reputable organisation and included all the necessary information needed at the time of miscarriage. They felt the branding and colour palette was warm, calming and not overly feminine. They also liked the language used which they felt was empathetic, conversational and relatable. Most participants navigated easily through the website, successfully finding the required information. Minor areas for improvement identified included some slight changes to specific imagery, navigational links and additional information on a few pages.
Conclusion: Using a human centred design approach to develop the Miscarriage Australia website allowed the research team, designers, developers to design and Australian based miscarriage website that met target end user needs. Ongoing evaluation will be undertaken and used to inform further development and refinement of the website.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/DYxTB5FFWvQLpJmIZyFeE91Pm_RiSDITsJSHi_tIJB-fdVgMERUhGFmKMbauWdWD.o9YagllL9mOA7gX9?startTime=1669255303000

Human Centred Design and Knowledge Systems
Zoom Breakout Room 1
13:00
15min
Recruiting Life in Australia™ using ABS, IVR and SMS Push-to-Web
Benjamin Phillips

Life in Australia™ is Australia’s only probability-based online panel, in operation since 2017. The panel was initially recruited in 2016 using dual-frame random digit dialling (RDD), topped up in 2018 using cell phone RDD as a single frame, expanded in 2019 using address-based sampling (A-BS), and topped up in late 2020 using a combination of A-BS, interactive voice response (IVR) calls to cell phones, and SMS push-to-web (i.e., invitations using only SMS) and expanded again in late 2021 using A-BS.
We present our findings with respect to recruitment and profile rates, retention, and completion rates. We also present the demographic profile of panel members compared to Census benchmarks with respect to age, gender, education, and nativity. We also discuss projections of amortised recruitment cost allowing for more frequent top-ups and higher attrition of SMS push-to-web sample to shed further light on cost considerations.
The yields from IVR and SMS push-to-web sample were below that of ABS, however the costs for IVR and SMS push-to-web were well below those of ABS and the less expensive modes actually delivered a more desirable panel member profile with respect to age and nativity, though not education. Our research raises interesting questions as to the trade-off between bias, cost, and face validity in the form of response rates.
This paper contributes to the international body of research on recruitment methods for probability-based online panels (see, e.g., Bertoni 2019; Bilgen, Dennis, and Ganesh 2018; Blom, Gathmann, and Krieger 2015; Bosnjak et al. 2018; Jessop 2018; Knoef and de Vos 2009; Meekins, Fries, and Fink 2019; Pedlow and Zhao 2016; Pew Research Center 2015, 2019; Pollard and Baird 2017; Scherpenzeel and Toepoel 2012; Stern 2015; Vaithianathan 2017; Ventura et al. 2017).

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/sFS4E0Eva6L3CETeEbh9cr8bLW7jHf3BqadVrD3ZBgTXkIpMYjtO_h9UWipxxHi-.ZbxNTlh6Oe1hAEZ5?startTime=1669255431000

Panel recruitment and retention
Zoom Breakout Room 3
13:20
13:20
15min
Generative interregnums: Slowing research down and taking breaks
Eileen Joy

Social researchers often explore complex, messy, real-world questions that are not amenable to simple or easy answers. Yet in the contemporary academic context, we are increasingly pressured to be ‘productive’, to maximise research outputs, and rewarded for this. The benefits are simplistically obvious – more publications, better job prospects, etc. But what about the costs, and what is lost? The mental health impacts of contemporary neoliberalised (and, for ECRs, precarity) are well established. Movements like ‘slow academia’ have pointed to knowledge consequences, as well.

In this presentation I will draw from my experiences as a qualitative PhD student deeply embedded in my analytic process, to explore the value of slowing down, and to demonstrate the importance of taking breaks in the research journey. My thesis work involved using reflexive thematic analysis to develop understanding of, and construct a story about, how child development knowledge is used in child protection policy and practice in Aotearoa. Reflexive thematic analysis necessitated reflection on all aspects of my work, and during the analysis stage of the project I had to recognise that I had ‘hit a wall’ and needed to take time out. When I returned to study, I realised that this this time out period – far from being a loss of momentum or failure, had been a gift, and that it had allowed (mental) space and time for ideas to percolate, brew and strengthen before returning refreshed to the data.

I use this experience to challenge the common-sense notion that breaks are unproductive time and instead posit that they can be a ‘generative interregnum’ time whereby ideas (and analysis) can develop in a space (somewhat) bracketed away from ‘productive’ pressures.
I argue for a rethinking of how time is planned and imagined in qualitative research – but situate that in an understanding that many graduate students and researchers are structurally prevented from being able to take such generative interregnums. Given these contextual constraints, what possibilities might there be to organise or stretch time in ways that facilitate generativity through non-productive (non)engagement.

The rich potential offered through qualitative research like reflexive TA is not well-served by the knowledge-delivery model of the neoliberal university. The reflexivity required by my chosen analytic method ultimately included considering whether I, as the researcher, was in the right space to be able to construct the analytic story. I had to knowingly assess my ability to construct that story at any given point in that process. If we are to retain the rich and full potential of qualitative research, we must challenge neoliberal notions of productivity in academia and work to dismantle the barriers – at a micro personal and a macro structural level - that prevent us from taking generative interregnums.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/DYxTB5FFWvQLpJmIZyFeE91Pm_RiSDITsJSHi_tIJB-fdVgMERUhGFmKMbauWdWD.o9YagllL9mOA7gX9?startTime=1669255303000

Innovative methods for social research
Zoom Breakout Room 1
13:20
15min
Reaching the hard-to-reach: recruiting and retaining underrepresented sub-groups in longitudinal research.
Jennifer Renda, Jessie Dunstan

Ten to Men: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health is Australia’s only nationwide cohort study of boys to adult males. A key function of Ten to Men is to provide an evidence base for research and policy that improve health outcomes for all Australian boys and men. Accordingly, monitoring and maintaining representativeness of the sample is an important activity. Wave 1 of Ten to Men was undertaken in 2013/14 and recruited around 16,000 boys and men aged 10 to 55 years.

Participant attrition is experienced by all longitudinal studies, with select analytical techniques (e.g. sample weighting) able to mitigate some of these risks. However, as a longitudinal sample matures, many studies engage in ‘top-up’ activities to ensure meaningful analyses can continue to be conducted. To address increasing attrition, the Ten to Men Sample Top-up Pilot study was undertaken in 2022 to test the effectiveness of multiple top-up methods in relation to achieved sample size, attributes of recruited participants, cost effectiveness and retention rates. This study targeted recruitment of the following priority populations of Australian men (either underrepresented or prone to higher attrition rates) including those who are young (<35 years); culturally and linguistically diverse; identify as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander; have non-tertiary qualifications; or live outside metro areas.

Phase 1 of the pilot (March/April 2022) tested the 3 main sampling/recruitment approaches, including Random Digit Dialling, Address-Based Sampling, and targeted social media campaigns for priority populations. Testing was also conducted in relation to communication methods and messaging. Altruistic and scarcity messaging were tested for both the probability samples, and several different combinations of messaging and imagery were tested for each target population in the social media recruitment. Phase 2 (August-October 2022) included a follow-up survey to all recruited participants to test early retention outcomes for each sample group.

This session will present an overview of recruitment and retention approaches, examination of the outcomes, and general discussion of the challenges and recommendations for top-up of longitudinal samples.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/sFS4E0Eva6L3CETeEbh9cr8bLW7jHf3BqadVrD3ZBgTXkIpMYjtO_h9UWipxxHi-.ZbxNTlh6Oe1hAEZ5?startTime=1669255431000

Panel recruitment and retention
Zoom Breakout Room 3
13:20
15min
Using interviews to understand agroecological practices in the Australian viticultural context
Anne Johnson

Record-breaking droughts, bushfires and now floods have left few in doubt that climate change is having a severe impact on the Australian environment. Farmers are observing accelerated changes to their climate, especially for climate-sensitive wine grapes. This mixed methods study will increase understanding of the diversity and extent of agroecological practices that grape growers are using to proactively adapt to current and future climate uncertainties. In the first exploratory stage of this research, interviews with 33 winegrape growers from 8 NSW wine growing regions have given qualitative insights into the types of changes that have been occurring and the benefits or barriers that growers have experienced when transitioning to agroecological practices.
Incorporating biodiversity into agricultural practice is a topic that industry is keen to better understand, so this qualitative study was linked with a concurrent biodiversity landscape survey which provided many advantages. Working as a team made driving long distances, physical sampling, researcher safety and participant recruitment easier for both studies. Ethical best practice was used as part of the process of building respect and trust when recruiting and interacting with farmers, especially in the adherence to biosecurity and sanitation practices between farm visits. Participants were given autonomy of choice for the field survey as well as the interview location, which was usually on the edge of a field, in the farm office or at the on-farm cellar door which ensured participants were comfortable in their surroundings. The interview was conducted as a triadic interaction between the interviewer, the vineyard and the grower who managed the vineyard. Interviews were mostly conducted outdoors as a precaution due to the surge in COVID-19 at the time, which meant participants could point out features of the vineyard. This often allowed their passion for the subject to show, particularly around their environmental improvements. Informal feedback after the interviews indicated that some found the conversation about drivers of change a useful personal reflection.
The ultimate purpose of these interviews was to serve as a foundational study of agroecological practices in viticulture and a quantitative stage will follow to assess the extent of, and regional differences in the uptake of agroecology. The data and results acquired from this study will be interpreted with respect to existing behavioural theories in motivation and behavioural change and compare them to current literature on motivations behind agroecological movements. The sustainable and regenerative farming movements are well reported in the media. This study will seek to provide some insights into motivations and experiences of agroecological practices in the context of viticulture which will help guide future research priorities to help navigate future uncertainties and increase the sustainability of Australian agriculture.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/hgwslXAzf4qmRv8ipyQ8zMAGRA6ZC19EJzm11t5vL9ztJQFO7ZqqwZRhGSozzL4.GZreddTQcQGSpJ3u?startTime=1669256433000

Interviewing methods
Zoom Breakout Room 2
13:40
13:40
15min
Revisiting the methodological advantages and limitations of asynchronous online focus groups for qualitative research
Rebecca Paxton

Since the start of the Covid-19 pandemic, many qualitative researchers have pivoted to online data collection. Online qualitative methods have advantages and limitations compared to their face-to-face counterparts and are often considered to generate more, but less rich, qualitative data. In the case of online focus groups, a particular challenge for generating rich data is the difficulty in fostering participant-to-participant interactions and thereby eliciting unanticipated ideas. Our recent experiences running six asynchronous online focus groups across two research projects in 2020-2021, challenged many of the claims about the advantages and limitations of this method. The focus groups explored Australian and New Zealand community attitudes towards novel biotechnologies in food production and how these relate to underlying values. Our methodological reflections are twofold: firstly, asynchronous online focus groups can generate rich individual data, as might occur from one-on-one interviews. Second, it is possible to foster participant-to-participant interactions and elicit unanticipated ideas. Based on our experiences, we argue that the asynchronous online focus group is a promising data collection method, with advantages that can be furthered through careful recruitment and design, flexible online platforms, and responsive facilitation. These reflections have practical and methodological implications for qualitative researchers, particularly for studies that embrace an emergent design.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/hgwslXAzf4qmRv8ipyQ8zMAGRA6ZC19EJzm11t5vL9ztJQFO7ZqqwZRhGSozzL4.GZreddTQcQGSpJ3u?startTime=1669257633000

Interviewing methods
Zoom Breakout Room 2
13:40
15min
The Integrated Public Number Database: An Alternate Telephone Frame for Population Health and Commonwealth Public Policy Surveys
Benjamin Phillips

The Integrated Public Number Database (IPND) provides access to all Australian mobile telephone numbers. Unlike random digit dialling (RDD), the IPND also provides the postcode at which the number is registered. The availability of postcodes is critical for affordable research at the state level and below because Australian mobile numbering is not related to geography. As a result of the cost of screening for sub-national samples, contemporary Australian telephone surveys typically use a blend of mobile RDD and listed mobile sample for cost control. (Landline RDD has largely been discontinued due to declining coverage, increasing coverage error and increasing cost.) Although the IPND has been available for some time for a limited set of use-cases (public health research, Commonwealth public policy research and party political research for candidates or parties), there has been no systematic investigation into the quality and efficiency of the IPND relative to RDD; an absence that this paper aims to remedy. We describe the results of (1) a systematic trial conducted on the IPND by the Social Research Centre, in partnership with various state and territory health agencies and Cancer Council Victoria (CCV) and (2) parallel administration of RDD and IPND in the CCV’s 2022 Victorian Smoking and Health Survey.
We first present a brief overview of the IPND and its limitations. The accuracy of geographic information from the IPND trial is shown, at levels from state (correct in 93% of cases) to postcode (correct in 75% of cases) and it is demonstrated that no appreciable coverage error was identified. The results of RDD and IPND samples on demographics and selected health outcomes and behavioural measures are compared. With the possible exception of the proportion of very young adults (i.e. 18-19 year-olds) responding, both unweighted achieved sample and weighted estimates are consistent between RDD and IPND.
The results of this paper show that the IPND is fit-for-purpose for public health research that has to date used RDD-based designs. Compared to a hypothetical single frame mobile RDD design for a state-level survey, IPND will yield similar estimates and sample characteristics but at reduced cost, due to reduced need for screening. Compared to the dual-frame mobile RDD and listed designs that are actually in use, costs should be broadly similar but the IPND is preferable because it offers the benefits of a pure probability design and higher weighting efficiency compared to the dual-frame alternative.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/sFS4E0Eva6L3CETeEbh9cr8bLW7jHf3BqadVrD3ZBgTXkIpMYjtO_h9UWipxxHi-.ZbxNTlh6Oe1hAEZ5?startTime=1669255431000

Survey sampling methodology
Zoom Breakout Room 3
13:40
15min
Understanding the epistemological divides of knowledge systems in sustainability transitions
Gillian Cornish

The assumptions we have about the way the world works, or believe it should work, dictate how we engage with the challenges of environmental sustainability. As researchers, these assumptions underpin our approach to understanding the human experiences of and institutional responses to climate change and other environmental crises. This presentation begins to highlight the role of knowledge systems in the sustainability challenges we face and questions what potential consequences occur when different ‘ways of knowing’ conflict. Knowledge is the ‘know how’, or the application of data and information to answer ‘how’ questions and is the product of knowledge systems. Knowledge systems are the practices and routines that facilitate communication, translation and mediation of knowledge across boundaries. Currently, how we innovate and communicate knowledge across disciplinary, epistemological and institutional boundaries tends to be unclear, preventing ideas being shared across our diverse knowledge systems. To address complex and international sustainability challenges, we need to be able to improve communication, translation, and absorption of knowledge. By planning to investigate different information governance arrangements across different knowledge systems, we aim to be able to usher in conditions for more collaborative and equitable approaches to knowledge and cost/benefit sharing. This presentation will make the case for why we need to improve our understanding of knowledge systems and explore how that might happen with diverse epistemologies in mind.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/DYxTB5FFWvQLpJmIZyFeE91Pm_RiSDITsJSHi_tIJB-fdVgMERUhGFmKMbauWdWD.o9YagllL9mOA7gX9?startTime=1669257754000

Human Centred Design and Knowledge Systems
Zoom Breakout Room 1
14:00
14:00
15min
Linking Hospital Emergency and Inpatient Admissions for secondary data analysis: a case study using Natural Language Processing
Gorkem Sezgin

Background: Hospital admission records contain a rich resource of data for healthcare research, providing a direct insight into processes and procedures whilst also being resilient to bias and limitations afflicting other sampling methods. In Australian hospitals, most data records are standardised or otherwise classified using internationally established conventions (e.g., International Classification of Disease by the World Health Organisation), thereby providing a robust data source for research. Hospital admission records are not centrally stored, with emergency and inpatient datasets located separately with different structures and frameworks. Therefore, before utilising hospital records data to report outcomes, pre-processing steps need to be taken. Here, we homogenise and link emergency and inpatient admission datasets and apply natural language processing on the linked datasets to create a predictive model for patient length of stay and readmission.

Methods: The dataset contains emergency and inpatient hospital admission records from two local health districts (South-Eastern-Sydney and Illawarra-Shoalhaven Local Health Districts) between 2020 and 2021. Both datasets were configured to a patient-admission level by reshaping the datasets to have the diagnostic records expand across a row rather than a column. A custom algorithm was created to link the reshaped datasets by using de-identified patient IDs as key and matching overlapping admission and departure/discharge date-times. Two outcome variables were generated for natural language processing: one indicating if the patient was readmitted within 28 days, and another indicating if the patient was admitted for more than one day. Diagnostic records from the emergency dataset, inpatient dataset, as well as age and gender of the patient were used in the models to predict the outcomes based on natural language processing (random forest classification with TF-IDF and word2vec vectors). Stata MP 15.1 was used to pre-process the datasets, and Python was used to link the datasets at a patient-admission level and run the natural language processing algorithm. The study was conducted under ethical approval from South-Eastern Sydney Local Health District Human Research Ethics committee (HREC/16/POWH/412) and Macquarie University, and funded under a National Health and Medical Research Council Partnership Project (1111925).

Results: Without the emergency dataset linked, the TF-IDF model produced a predictive model for readmission with 96% precision and 76.2% recall. The linkage increased the precision to 96.4% and the recall to 76.3%. The unlinked word2vec model had a precision of 96.7% and a recall of 74.8%, which increased to 97.1% precision and slightly reduced to 74.6% recall after linkage. For predicting if the patient would be admitted for more than one day, the unlinked TF-IDF model had 86.2% precision and 89.7% recall, which increased to 87.4% precision and 90.5% recall after linkage. The unlinked word2vec model had 81.9% precision and 89% recall, and the linked model had 83.4% precision and 88.6% recall.

Conclusion: Hospital admission records provide a rich source of data for secondary data analysis, with pre-processing and linking different components of a patient’s stay improving predictive modelling. Here we show an improvement in predictive modelling by linking inpatient and emergency dataset diagnostic records. Linkage with pathology tests, radiology tests, and medications would further improve predictive models and reporting outcomes.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/sFS4E0Eva6L3CETeEbh9cr8bLW7jHf3BqadVrD3ZBgTXkIpMYjtO_h9UWipxxHi-.ZbxNTlh6Oe1hAEZ5?startTime=1669255431000

Data linkage and modelling
Zoom Breakout Room 3
14:20
14:20
15min
Understanding the linked LSAY-NAPLAN data
Emerick Chew

Linking academic data from the National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) to the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) provides an incredibly rich source of assessment data in addition to the wealth of information available from LSAY. Using the data, however, comes with challenges common to many data linkages. This includes dealing with bias as not all respondents provide their consent for linkage.

In this session we will present our analysis of the linked LSAY-NAPLAN data which looks into these challenges and how we go about accommodating these issues. This will include findings from our analysis of the factors that influence respondents’ likelihood to consent and outcomes from the representativity analysis that seeks to understand how well the consenting respondents represent the target population.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/sFS4E0Eva6L3CETeEbh9cr8bLW7jHf3BqadVrD3ZBgTXkIpMYjtO_h9UWipxxHi-.ZbxNTlh6Oe1hAEZ5?startTime=1669255431000

Data linkage and modelling
Zoom Breakout Room 3
15:00
15:00
80min
Successes and lessons from polling at the 2022 federal election
Shaun Ratcliff

In the leadup to the 2022 Australian election, there was considerable speculation about the possible success of minor parties and independents, and the likelihood of a hung parliament.

Just two weeks before election day, YouGov released estimates for all 151 House of Representatives electorates, the first time any organisation had done this during an Australian national election campaign. It indicated hung parliament speculation was wrong, predicting Labor would win 76-85 seats, with the most likely outcome being 80 (they won 77), and that the Coalition would win 58-68 (they won 58).

These estimates came from a model-based approach called Multilevel Regression and Poststratification (MRP), which combined a large survey with information from the Census and other data, allowing for a more granular approach to polling.

YouGov’s Director of Data Science — Public Affairs and Polling, Dr Shaun Ratcliff, will talk about how the model worked, what it said about the election, and lessons from YouGov’s innovations at this election.

Recording link: https://acspri-org-au.zoom.us/rec/share/NSa_TKfKf-OO5fnbrxZBoGWwkBEqyOz7rSiSl2QFMq3q9TyO2vWlppETZr0lVMqg.zusQdCS48cPgzXHN

Zoom Conference Room
16:20
16:20
10min
Conference close

A member of the ACSPRI executive committee will close the conference and acknowledging our sponsors.

Zoom Conference Room
08:30
08:30
30min
Registration
Ella Latham Auditorium, Royal Children's Hospital - 50 Flemington Rd
09:00
09:00
480min
Methods Symposium Zoom access
Zoom Conference Room
09:00
30min
Welcome to Country and Symposium Opening

Welcome to Country - Wurundjeri Elder
Opening Comments - Professor Andrew Steer, Theme Director - Infection and Immunity, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute & Professor Bronwyn Parry, Dean of College of Arts and Social Sciences, The Australian National University.

Ella Latham Auditorium, Royal Children's Hospital - 50 Flemington Rd
09:30
09:30
45min
Drowning in data but what are the Insights for the social sciences?
Professor Tarani Chandola

Drowning in data but what are the Insights for the social sciences?

Ella Latham Auditorium, Royal Children's Hospital - 50 Flemington Rd
10:15
10:15
45min
Understanding pathways to embodiment: Racism and health
Dr Jourdyn Lawrence

Understanding pathways to embodiment: Racism and health

Ella Latham Auditorium, Royal Children's Hospital - 50 Flemington Rd
11:00
11:00
30min
Morning tea
Ella Latham Auditorium, Royal Children's Hospital - 50 Flemington Rd
11:30
11:30
45min
Racism and the Unjust Population-Level Distribution of Disease: Social and Psychobiological Mechanisms of Health Inequities
Assoc Professor David Chae

Racism and the Unjust Population-Level Distribution of Disease: Social and Psychobiological Mechanisms of Health Inequities

Ella Latham Auditorium, Royal Children's Hospital - 50 Flemington Rd
12:15
12:15
30min
Inflammation is the answer. What was the question again?
Professor David Burgner

Inflammation is the answer. What was the question again?

Ella Latham Auditorium, Royal Children's Hospital - 50 Flemington Rd
12:45
12:45
45min
Lunch
Ella Latham Auditorium, Royal Children's Hospital - 50 Flemington Rd
13:30
13:30
30min
Epigenetics: biological embedding of early life environmental exposures
Professor Richard Saffery

Epigenetics: biological embedding of early life environmental exposures

Ella Latham Auditorium, Royal Children's Hospital - 50 Flemington Rd
14:00
14:00
30min
The Melbourne Children’s LifeCourse Initiative: A powerful data resource for exploring social-biological pathways
Dr Meredith O’Connor

The Melbourne Children’s LifeCourse Initiative: A powerful data resource for exploring social-biological pathways

Ella Latham Auditorium, Royal Children's Hospital - 50 Flemington Rd
14:30
14:30
30min
Positive and adverse childhood experiences and inequalities in childhood inflammation and BMI – Building evidence for action
Professor Naomi Priest

Positive and adverse childhood experiences and inequalities in childhood inflammation and BMI – Building evidence for action

Ella Latham Auditorium, Royal Children's Hospital - 50 Flemington Rd
15:00
15:00
30min
Afternoon tea
Ella Latham Auditorium, Royal Children's Hospital - 50 Flemington Rd
15:30
15:30
45min
What is the social? Learning from feminist theories of embodiment and Science and Technology Studies
Professor Celia Roberts

What is the social? Learning from feminist theories of embodiment and Science and Technology Studies

Ella Latham Auditorium, Royal Children's Hospital - 50 Flemington Rd
16:15
16:15
45min
Panel discussion and Q&A – What is the future of biosocial research?
Professor Tarani Chandola, Dr Jourdyn Lawrence, Assoc Professor David Chae, Professor Richard Saffery, Professor Naomi Priest, Dr Meredith O’Connor, Professor David Burgner, Professor Celia Roberts, Professor Melissa Wake, Diane Herz

Panel discussion and Q&A – What is the future of biosocial research?

Ella Latham Auditorium, Royal Children's Hospital - 50 Flemington Rd
17:00
17:00
5min
Conference close
Ella Latham Auditorium, Royal Children's Hospital - 50 Flemington Rd